Seasonal variations in the incidence of sperm morphological abnormalities in dairy bulls regularly used for artificial insemination. Such high maternal investment of carotenoids into egg yolk is typical among wild bird species, suggesting that these biologically active pigments serve important functions in the developing bird From: Athough embryonic tissues depend on oxidizable, unsaturated fatty acids in yolk, their abundance makes the tissues susceptible to peroxidation caused by reactive oxidative metabolites and by free radicals, which are produced as normal by-products of metabolism. To help overcome this, the standardization of staining techniques to be used in computer-assessed light microscopical methods is a priority. Evidence now suggests that such spots are located where the eggshell is a bit thinner likely due to a calcium deficiency in the diet of female birds , with the pigment serving to strengthen the shell Gosler et al. A watery semen may indicate an excessive amount of lymph transparent fluid in the sample.
AVIAN ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION AND SEMEN PRESERVATION
All other eggs were transferred to incubators Bristol incubators S; Red-legged Partridge Photo by G. In some birds, such as hawks, the right ovary and oviduct usually develop. Semen volume and response to semen collection often can be improved by placing a bird near other birds. A drop of semen is placed on a clean microscope slide under a cover slip and several areas examined at a magnification. Preservation of poultry semen: Proper physical, physiological, nutritional, and behavioral conditions must be provided to obtain reproduction.
Some of these semen samples begin as a clear fluid in the collecting device and turn white as the urates precipitate out. Also, poor fertility in a mated pair can be improved through insemination with semen from another male. Also, the immune responsiveness of offspring is depressed, which could lower the survival of offspring particularly in harsh disease environments Grindstaff et al. The effect of cryopreservation on sperm head morphometry in Florida male goat related to sperm freezability. Artificial insemination and duration of fertility in Chinese geese. Watanabe attached one pole of the electroejaculator to the sacral region and the other probe a blunt rod was inserted into the vent. Journal of Avian Biology
Avian sex determination Ellegren -- The molecular determinants behind sexual development in birds remain a mystery. Poultry Science Symposium Series. Avian spermatozoa, however, are filiform, limiting their analysis with such systems, which were developed to examine the approximately spherical heads of mammalian sperm cells. Theriogenology 83 , — A deep vaginal insemination is usually preferable Lorenz , Ogasawara and Fuqua since the storage site sperm host glands is located at the utero-vaginal juncture Bohr et al.